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货代提单和船东提单到底有什么差别? | 外贸微课堂 What is the difference between freight bill of lading and shipowner's bill of lading? |
货代提单和船东提单到底有什么差别? | 外贸微课堂
货代提单（House B/L，又叫分提单，简称H单)，严格意义上应该称为无船承运人（一级货代，中国从2002年开始相关资格认证，货代要在交通部指定的银行交付押金才能被批准）提单，是经交通部批准并备案取得NVOCC(Non-vessel operating common carrier)资格的货代所签发的提单，一般是签发给直接货主；有时也有同行套用提单，此时提单签发给该同行，而该同行会签发其自己的提单给其直接货主。现在出口一般都是HOUSE单比较多，特别是去欧美的地方。
船东单：MASTER BILL OF LOADING
货代单：HOUSE BILL OFLOADING(FORWARDER BILL OF LOADING)
船公司提单是以船公司为抬头的,货代提单是以货代名称为抬头的。底部印章也不一样，船东单印章显示AS CARRIER ，货代单是AS AGENT FOR CARRIER
A．船公司一般以Shipping Co.或Line命名，例如：COSCO以及MAERSK (CHINA)Shipping Co.，KLine等等，而货代则多以Transport CO．或Forwarding Co．命名。当然也有例外，例如美国的海陆船公司，它以全名是Sealand Service，不了解的还以为它是一家什么服务公司。
D．货代提单中有的在正面印上一个“For Delivery，Please Contact”栏目，以便收货人在目的港找其联系提货。
1.货代作为拼箱人(Consolidator)不得不签发提单。(这里顺便提一下，关于Groupage Cargo的问题，Groupage Cargo和Consolidation Cargo我理解是同一涵义，过去散货运输使用Groupage Cargo意指成组货物，例为货物打成托盘(Pallet)，在集装箱运输中，Groupage一字已很少使用，而使用了Consolidation Cargo，而且目前已简化为Consol Cargo词了。最近有一家外贸公司，打电话问我Groupage B/L是怎么一回事，实际上成组货提单船公司发给办理拼箱的货代，货代则在此基础上签发分提单(SeparateHouse B/L)。客户谈Groupage B/L不能接受，显然是一句多余的话，但也许它的意思是House B/L不能接受。)
What is the difference between freight bill of lading and shipowner's bill of lading? |
The foreign trade micro-class is created by "Liaocheng Hongyuan International Trade Service Co., Ltd." for the majority of foreign trade people. It aims to often share some dry goods knowledge and let everyone improve themselves, because we believe that "without stepping, there is no distance."
In practice, two types of bills of lading are encountered: shipowner's bills of lading and freight forwarding bills of lading.
The owner is the freight company that owns ocean-going freighters. The cost of an ocean-going freighter is high, and a company with its own ocean-going fleet is naturally strong.
Another type of freight company is freight forwarding, referred to as freight forwarding. The freight forwarder does not have a ship, and in a sense, it is almost the same as an ordinary trading company. After they solicited the cargo, they took it to the shipowner to book a cabin together. Consider the difference and relationship between the shipowner and the freight forwarder as a wholesaler and retailer. The commodity is the "class" of an ocean freighter. The ship owner wholesales the space to the freight forwarder, and the freight forwarder retails the space to the cargo owner.
Shipowner's bill of lading refers to the shipping bill of lading (Master B / L, also known as master bill, sea bill, abbreviated M bill) issued by the shipping company, which can be issued to the direct shipper (at this time, the bill of lading cannot be issued) or to the freight forwarder At this time, the freight forwarder sends the bill of lading to the direct shipper).
Freight bill of lading (House B / L, also known as bill of lading, referred to as H bill), in the strict sense, it should be called a non-vessel carrier (first-class freight forwarding, China from 2002 onwards related qualification certification, freight forwarding must be at the bank designated by the Ministry of Transport The bill of lading can only be approved) The bill of lading is a bill of lading issued by a freight forwarder approved by the Ministry of Communications and filing for NVOCC (Non-vessel operating common carrier) qualification. It is generally issued to the direct shipper; sometimes there are peers who apply the bill of lading, at which time the bill of lading is issued To the peer, and the peer will issue its own bill of lading to its direct shipper. At present, there are usually many HOUSE orders, especially in places in Europe and America.
For exporters, both bills of lading can be used as negotiable documents, and both banks will accept them.
Two English expressions of bill of lading:
Shipowner's slip: MASTER BILL OF LOADING
Freight forwarding: HOUSE BILL OFLOADING (FORWARDER BILL OF LOADING)
The issue subject is different:
MB / L is a bill of lading issued by a shipping company, HB / L is a bill of lading based on MB / L by a freight forwarder and issued by a freight forwarder. Freight forwarding bills are not issued when they want to be issued. The main body that signs the shipping bills must have an agent at least in the port of destination.
It looks different:
Shipping company bills of lading are based on shipping companies, and freight forwarding bills of lading are based on freight forwarding names. The bottom seal is not the same, the shipper's single seal shows AS CARRIER, and the freight forwarder is AS AGENT FOR CARRIER
Different receiving methods at the port of destination:
The owner's bill can be delivered directly to the shipping company, and the freight forwarding document must first be exchanged with the shipping agent's bill of lading at the destination port. Then take the shipping company's bill of lading to pick up the goods, commonly known as exchange orders. Or, the client in the destination port can directly find the freight forwarder's agent with the freight forwarder.
The scope of application is different:
Owner's order is applicable to FCL FCL cargo. If your cargo is not FCL, but scattered cargo, you can only ship on behalf of the order, because the shipping company will not help you to consolidate the cargo, nor will it arrive at the destination port. To help you distribute the goods, this situation can only be HB / L or electric amplifier.
Without the bill of lading, it can be distinguished in the following ways:
A. Shipping companies are usually named after Shipping Co. or Line, for example: COSCO and MAERSK (CHINA) Shipping Co., KLine, etc., while freight forwarding is mostly Transport CO. Or Forwarding Co. name. Of course, there are exceptions. For example, the US sea and land shipping company, whose full name is Sealand Service, do not know what service company it is.
B. With the help of the Airline Exchange and the Freight Forwarders Association, you may be able to get a list of shipping companies and freight forwarders who set up camps in Shanghai, but foreign and remote locations have difficulties.
C. Some freight forwarders join the international FIATA organization. In order to show their status, the word "FIATA member" is often printed on the front of the bill of lading. The first definition clause on the back of some bills of lading may show its specific identity.
D. Some of the freight bills of lading have a "For Delivery, Please Contact" column printed on the front so that the consignee can find their contact at the port of destination to pick up the goods.
E. Most of the LCL business at the Shanghai port is handled by freight forwarding. The L / L bill of lading usually replaces CY-CY with CY-CFS.
Freight bills of lading are usually used in the following two situations:
1. Forwarder as a Consolidator has to issue a bill of lading. (By the way, regarding Groupage Cargo, I understand Groupage Cargo and Consolidation Cargo have the same meaning. In the past, Groupage Cargo was used to refer to groups of goods in bulk transportation. For example, the goods are palletized. In container transportation, The word Groupage is rarely used, but Consolidation Cargo is used, and it has been simplified to Consol Cargo. Recently, a foreign trade company called and asked me what Groupage B / L is all about. The bill of lading shipping company issues the LCL freight forwarder, and the freight forwarder issues a separate bill of lading (SeparateHouse B / L) on this basis. The customer cannot accept Groupage B / L, which is obviously a superfluous sentence, but maybe it means House B / L cannot accept.)
2. The freight forwarder accepts the designated goods of the foreign agent, and indicates that the format bill of lading (and the foreign freight forwarder's bill of lading) shall be issued on its behalf.
Of course, when the freight forwarder acts as an NVOCC, it will also issue its own bill of lading.
Now that shipping companies can issue bills of lading, why should there be a freight forwarder?
Although the shipowner is secure, after all, it is inevitable that "shops are overwhelming customers", and they are often inferior to freight forwarding in terms of service flexibility and attentiveness. There are a large number of freight forwarders and a wide distribution, and it is very convenient to communicate with foreign trade. It is also more willing to cooperate with the owner's operations, especially the special operations like the "backward bill of lading" mentioned above. Therefore, it is more common for cargo owners to deal with freight forwarders in actual work.
On the surface, the shipowner's bill of lading and freight forwarding bill of lading have similar effects. The owner of the cargo sells the original bill of lading to a foreign merchant, and the foreign merchant fetches the goods against the bill of lading. There are actually differences. First of all, the bill of lading itself is a kind of "contract of transportation". If the freighter issues the bill of lading to the owner, it is equivalent to signing a contract of carriage. The shipowner's bill of lading is a contract between the owner and the shipowner, while the freight bill of lading is not. The cargo owner delivers the cargo to the freight forwarder, and the freight forwarder then hands it to the shipowner. There is a shipping agreement between the freight forwarder and the shipowner. The shipowner is only responsible to the freight forwarder and not to the shipper or owner, because under the operation of the freight bill of lading, for the shipowner, Freight forwarding is the "consignor". .
Therefore, with the shipowner's bill of lading, you can pick up the goods directly at the destination port; while the freight bill of lading does not work, you need to take the freight bill of lading to the port agent to "change the order", that is, issue a notice of delivery according to the freight bill of lading, and then pick up the goods. Of course, for the delivery person, this seems to be an extra procedure, which does not affect the delivery, and it is not a risk. On the contrary, consignors can take advantage of this to better control property rights. For example, after the consignor delivers the bill of lading to the customer, he suddenly finds that the customer has fraudulent behavior and may not give money. At this time, the consignor can ask the forwarder to help and notify the agent in the port of destination to “hold” the goods, so that the foreign merchant can hold the bill of lading even if it is held. The goods are not available for the time being, giving the owner valuable time (there is no formal reason for the port of destination to forcibly detain the goods, which can only be delayed for a few days, but for foreign trade disputes, such delays are very beneficial to exporters).
In short, if the cargo transportation itself is unfortunate, when the owner of the cargo holds the freight company accountable, it is clear that the shipowner with stronger strength is more capable than the ordinary freight forwarder. In general, freight forwarding is better than the shipowner's ability to cooperate with the cargo owner. In flexibly processing bills of lading and preventing commercial fraud, the help of freight forwarding is very important. In addition, the freight price of freight forwarding is also very advantageous, often with discounts.
In addition, although the shipowner's bill (MB / L) is the most basic proof of property rights, it is rigid and there are many terms in it that you cannot control. If you do L / C, but you can't produce it within the stipulated delivery time and can't board the ship, then you can choose HB / L and ask the freight forwarder to help you reverse the bill of lading. Of course, this is also irregular, so you are generally required to issue a guarantee letter! If you do L / C, you haven't found any special requirements for the ship (such as: ship age, ship registration, ISM CODE, freight certificate, port of call, ship certificate, etc.) and the shipping company cannot issue these ,How to do? If you do not submit the order as required, you cannot settle the foreign exchange. In the case that L / C does not explicitly stipulate that the freight forwarding order is not accepted, SHIPPER generally chooses to ship the order, and flings the foreigner, unless the foreigner really does not want the goods, generally it can be covered past. However, if the foreigner finds out, the trouble is at least a fraud. Wait for the court.
Another is: when the shipper has not received the payment from the foreign customer, it may be required to sign a delivery order in order to control the goods and avoid losing money.
There is also a special case: a third party is involved, and the middleman does not want the final customer to know the origin of the goods and other information, so it may be necessary to sign a delivery order to achieve the purpose of protecting trade secrets.
Risk: Issuing the owner's slip is a safer option for both the shipper and the freight forwarder. For the shipper, the shipowner's credibility and safety factor must be stronger than that of the freight forwarder. Under normal circumstances, the shipowner will be trusted, and compared with the shipowner, the shipper will definitely be a little uneasy. It is also safer for the freight forwarder, and no agent is needed. In case the agent rolls the goods away, the freight forwarder is considered to be dry, or even closed down. Therefore, the whole container export is less than ten thousand. The freight forwarder is not very willing to sign the delivery order.
Cost issues: Shippers 'single destination port pickup generally does not incur any charges, and freight forwarding bill pickup will definitely charge customers' destination order replacement fees. (It is also possible for the consignor to pay the freight forwarder, and the freight forwarder will settle with the agent separately.) If you want to pre-ship the freight and pick up the goods quickly, you can issue the owner's order, and you can save more than a dozen dollars for the order fee. If you want to control the cargo rights, freight payment, etc., you have to ship the order, the freight forwarder can help you agent these, of course, this is not free.
In short, the shipowner's list is the basic proof of property rights, but it is rigid and you cannot control many of the terms in it!
Specify the freight forwarding and shipping order, and the shipowner's order will be in the hands of the freight forwarder. They give you their own bill of lading. The real property rights certificate is controlled by him. The risk here depends on what payment method you make. .
If it is a letter of credit, the bank may not recognize the freight forwarder. If it is the former TT, the balance can be paid by COPY of the bill of lading, then it is possible that the customer and the freight forwarder conspired and did not pay the balance. If all payments are paid in advance, there is no risk to you.