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商务部:跨境电商发展步入快车道 已成为我国带领作用最强的外贸新业态Ministry of Commerce: The development of cross-border e-commerce has entered the fast lane, which has become the new format of foreign trade with the strongest leading role in my country
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商务部:跨境电商发展步入快车道 已成为我国带领作用最强的外贸新业态Ministry of Commerce: The development of cross-border e-commerce has entered the fast lane, which has become the new format of foreign trade with the strongest leading role in my country

【摘要】:
近年来,在互联网与经济全球化深度结合的背景下,全球贸易业态发生重大变革,以跨境电商为代表的“数字贸易”新经济形态实现了从无到有、由小变大的快速发展。中国国际经济交流中心副理事长兼秘书长张大卫日前表示,我国支持跨境电商发展的系列措施,极大地激发了跨境电商的市场活力,对全球跨境电商市场起到了拉动作用,使无数中小微企业和从业者直接融入全球产业链供应链,直接进入全球性消费市场。“跨境电商以其低成本、高效率

近年来,在互联网与经济全球化深度结合的背景下,全球贸易业态发生重大变革,以跨境电商为代表的“数字贸易”新经济形态实现了从无到有、由小变大的快速发展。

中国国际经济交流中心副理事长兼秘书长张大卫日前表示,我国支持跨境电商发展的系列措施,极大地激发了跨境电商的市场活力,对全球跨境电商市场起到了拉动作用,使无数中小微企业和从业者直接融入全球产业链供应链,直接进入全球性消费市场。

“跨境电商以其低成本、高效率、突破时空限制的独特优势,受到全球消费者的青睐。”商务部研究院电子商务研究所副研究员洪勇表示,近年来,我国跨境电子商务交易规模继续保持增长态势,已经成为外贸发展的新动能、转型升级的新渠道和高质量发展的新抓手。

In recent years, under the background of the deep integration of the Internet and economic globalization, major changes have taken place in the global trade format. The new economic form of “digital trade” represented by cross-border e-commerce has achieved rapid growth from scratch and from small to large. develop.

David Zhang, vice chairman and secretary-general of the China International Economic Exchange Center, recently stated that my country’s series of measures to support the development of cross-border e-commerce have greatly stimulated the vitality of the cross-border e-commerce market and played a stimulating role in the global cross-border e-commerce market. , Enabling countless small, medium and micro enterprises and practitioners to directly integrate into the global industrial chain supply chain and directly enter the global consumer market.

"Cross-border e-commerce is favored by consumers around the world with its unique advantages of low cost, high efficiency, and breakthroughs in time and space." The transaction scale continues to grow, and it has become a new driving force for foreign trade development, a new channel for transformation and upgrading, and a new starter for high-quality development.


Sang Baichuan, dean of the Institute of International Economics at the University of International Business and Economics, believes that with the help of Internet platforms, new trade models such as cross-border e-commerce have greatly satisfied the symmetry of information between supply and demand and have also improved the efficiency of bilateral trade. At the same time, due to my country's complete product system, it can provide products to other countries on a larger scale and more concentratedly, reduce import and export costs, and thereby meet the needs of consumers and investors. It can be said that a large number of high-quality and competitive prices are also the reason for the rapid development of my country's cross-border e-commerce.


When the new crown pneumonia epidemic last year had a profound impact on the global supply chain and traditional economic and trade activities, China’s cross-border e-commerce bucked the trend and achieved 1.69 trillion yuan in imports and exports throughout the year, a year-on-year increase of 31.1%, compared with five years ago The scale of China has increased by nearly 10 times, which strongly supports the growth of my country’s import and export trade. In July of this year, the General Office of the State Council issued the "Opinions on Accelerating the Development of New Forms and New Models of Foreign Trade", once again unleashing major policy benefits in the cross-border e-commerce field.

Improve the institutional framework


Since 2015, my country has set up 105 comprehensive cross-border e-commerce pilot zones in 5 batches, which basically cover the whole country. The scale of the “test plots” that cross-border e-commerce pilots has continued to expand, and the development pattern of land, sea, domestic and foreign linkages, and east-west mutual assistance to further improve.


"Through active exploration, the Ministry of Commerce and other departments have formed nearly 70 mature experiences and practices, and built a cross-border e-commerce system framework with the'six systems and two platforms' as the core." The customs declaration mode of "Complete Statistics" has improved the efficiency of customs clearance, and cross-border e-commerce tax preferential policies such as approved collection have greatly reduced the burden on enterprises. The scope of cross-border e-commerce B2B export supervision pilots and retail import pilots continued to expand. The list of cross-border e-commerce retail imports has been further optimized to better meet domestic consumer demand. In addition, a series of regulations on the return and exchange of goods for cross-border e-commerce import and export have been issued, making it more convenient for consumers to return and exchange goods.

According to Wei Hao, a professor at Beijing Normal University School of Economics and Business Administration and director of the Department of International Economics and Trade, the support policy for cross-border e-commerce should focus on the pain points and difficulties of cross-border e-commerce development, and put forward practical measures that meet the expectations of enterprises. , "It is necessary to solve the short-term problems that restrict development, but also to pay attention to the long-term development of infrastructure and the improvement of mechanisms."

In the short term, we must attach great importance to the construction of overseas warehouses, focus on strengthening the cultivation of entities, promoting digital development, strengthening standard construction, and improving the overseas warehouse network, and use multiple investment and financing methods to increase support for export credit insurance. Overseas warehouse construction. In addition, it is necessary to continuously improve the management policy of cross-border e-commerce import and export returns and exchanges to ease the operating pressure of enterprises, especially small and medium-sized enterprises.


From a long-term perspective, it is necessary to study and formulate cross-border e-commerce intellectual property protection policies, improve fiscal and taxation and other supporting policies, vigorously cultivate large-scale international logistics enterprises, explore the construction of overseas logistics smart platforms, build independent large-scale international e-commerce platforms, and strengthen infrastructure Construction, etc., so as to lay a solid foundation for the long-term development of cross-border e-commerce.



Responding to development risks


At present, my country's cross-border e-commerce has also encountered some bottlenecks in its overseas development. Due to the different laws, cultures, and business habits of different countries, cross-border e-commerce businesses will encounter various risks and challenges.


"This is a problem that must be faced in the development of the industry." Hong Yong said that some cross-border e-commerce merchants have been forced by cross-border e-commerce platforms because they violated platform rules because they suspected that they had violated the rules of the platform. shelf. In addition, affected by the rebound of the new crown pneumonia epidemic, international shipping prices have been rising steadily, and the profits of cross-border e-commerce companies have also been severely squeezed.


"These problems highlight the unstable, rapid, and long-term development of China’s cross-border e-commerce business. Business platforms, especially those with a large international market share, are supported by large platforms, lack of international logistics and transportation capabilities that are compatible with the rapid development of cross-border e-commerce, insufficient understanding of relevant rules in developed countries such as Europe and the United States, and the need to attach importance to the protection of intellectual property rights Improved, lack of awareness and ability to deal with international risks.


Wei Hao said that the construction of a comprehensive online service platform for cross-border e-commerce should be accelerated to reduce the burden on enterprises and improve efficiency; attention should be paid to regulatory issues such as risk prevention and control, industry development should be regulated, and the industry's ability to respond to risks should be strengthened; cross-border e-commerce should be steadily promoted The construction of a comprehensive pilot zone for e-commerce provides a leading role for the future development of cross-border e-commerce, and actively replicates and promotes the mature experience and practices of the comprehensive pilot zone for cross-border e-commerce to the whole country.

Speaking of the future development of cross-border e-commerce, Hong Yong believes that we should focus on issues such as overseas warehouse functions, intellectual property protection, and the establishment of international rules for cross-border e-commerce. Currently, most overseas warehouses do not have functions such as providing customs clearance services, supply chain financial services, after-sales services, and personalized services. At the same time, some products of cross-border e-commerce sellers going abroad involve intellectual property rights infringement, which also affects the overall image of Chinese sellers to a certain extent. Due to the different development priorities and interest demands of cross-border e-commerce in various countries, there has not yet been a unified international rule for cross-border e-commerce. my country should actively participate in cross-border e-commerce international exchanges and rule exploration, and launch a cross-border e-commerce "China Plan" in a multi-bilateral cooperation mechanism.

 

对外经济贸易大学国际经济研究院院长桑百川认为,借助互联网平台,跨境电商等新贸易模式极大满足了供求双方的信息对称,也提高了双边贸易的效率。同时,由于我国产品体系完备,可以较大规模、较为集中地为其他国家提供产品供给,降低进出口成本,从而满足消费者和投资者的需求。可以说,海量优质优价的产品,也是我国跨境电商飞速发展的原因所在。

 

在去年新冠肺炎疫情对全球供应链和传统经贸活动造成深刻冲击的情况下,中国跨境电商逆势而上,全年实现进出口额1.69万亿元,同比增长31.1%,比五年前的规模增长了近10倍,有力支撑了我国进出口贸易增长。今年7月,国务院办公厅出台《关于加快发展外贸新业态新模式的意见》,再次释放跨境电商领域重大政策利好。


完善制度框架

 

2015年以来,我国分5批设立105个跨境电商综合试验区,基本覆盖全国,跨境电商先行先试的“试验田”规模不断扩大,陆海内外联动、东西双向互济的发展格局进一步完善。

 

“商务部等部门通过积极探索,形成了近70项成熟的经验做法,搭建了以‘六体系两平台’为核心的跨境电商制度框架。”洪勇介绍说,如我国“清单核放、汇总统计”的报关模式提高了通关效率,核定征收等跨境电商税收优惠政策大大减轻了企业负担。跨境电商B2B出口监管试点、零售进口试点范围持续扩大。跨境电商零售进口商品清单进一步优化,更好地满足了国内消费需求。此外,出台了一系列关于跨境电商进出口退换货管理规定,消费者退换货更加方便。

在北京师范大学经济与工商管理学院教授、国际经济与贸易系主任魏浩看来,对跨境电商的支持政策要着眼于跨境电商发展的痛点和难点,提出符合企业期望的务实举措,“既要解决制约发展的短期问题,也要重视长期发展的基础建设和机制体制的完善”。

从短期来看,要高度重视海外仓建设问题,围绕强化主体培育、推动数字化发展、加强标准建设、完善海外仓网络四个方面展开工作,以多种投融资方式、加大出口信用保险等支持海外仓建设。另外,要不断完善跨境电商进出口退换货管理政策,缓解企业特别是中小企业的经营压力。

 

从长期来看,要研究制定跨境电商知识产权保护政策、完善财税等各类支持政策、大力培育大型国际物流企业、探索建设海外物流智慧平台、建设自主大型国际电商平台、加强基础设施建设等,从而为跨境电商的长远发展奠定坚实基础。

 


应对发展风险

 

当前,我国跨境电商在海外发展也遇到一些瓶颈。由于各国法律、文化、商业习惯不同,跨境电商商家会碰到各种风险与挑战。

 

“这是行业发展过程中必然要面对的问题。”洪勇表示,有些跨境电商商家因为涉嫌刷单、刷评论等行为违反平台规则,遭到跨境电商平台强制性大规模下架。另外,受新冠肺炎疫情反弹影响,国际海运价格节节攀升,跨境电商企业利润也受到严重挤压。

 

“这些问题凸显了我国跨境电商稳定发展、快速发展、长期发展的基础不稳、机制体制不完善、发展环境仍需优化。”魏浩认为,造成这些问题的主要原因是,缺少自主电商平台特别是具有较大国际市场份额大平台的支撑,与跨境电商快速发展相适应的国际物流运输能力不足,对欧美等发达国家相关规则的了解不充分,对知识产权保护的重视程度需要提高,应对国际风险的意识不强、能力不足。

 

魏浩表示,应加快建设跨境电商线上综合服务平台,减轻企业的负担并提高效率;要高度重视风险防控等监管问题,规范行业发展,增强行业应对风险的能力;稳步推进跨境电商综合试验区建设,为跨境电商的未来发展提供引领作用,并积极做好跨境电商综合试验区成熟经验做法向全国的复制推广。

谈到未来跨境电商的发展,洪勇认为,应重点关注海外仓功能、知识产权保护以及跨境电商国际规则建立等问题。目前,大多数海外仓不具有提供通关服务、供应链金融服务、售后服务、个性化服务等功能。同时,跨境电商卖家出海中一些产品涉及知识产权侵权问题,也在一定程度上影响中国卖家的整体形象。由于各国跨境电商发展重点、利益诉求不同,目前还没有形成统一的跨境电商国际规则。我国应积极参与跨境电商国际交流和规则探索,在多双边合作机制中,推出跨境电商“中国方案”。