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小心!FOB条款下有这些想不到的费用需要发货人承担 Look out! These unexpected expenses under FOB clause need to be borne by the shipper.
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小心!FOB条款下有这些想不到的费用需要发货人承担 Look out! These unexpected expenses under FOB clause need to be borne by the shipper.

【摘要】:
FOB(FreeonBoard)也称为离岸价,即装运港船上交货。按FOB进行的交易,买方负责派船接运货物,卖家应在合同规定的装运港和规定的期限内将货物装上买方指定的船只,并及时通知买方。货物在装运港被装上指定船时,风险即由卖方转移至买方FOB(FreeonBoard)isalsoknownasFOB,i.e.FOBonboardattheportofshipment.InFOBtransactio
 
 
FOB (Free on Board)也称为离岸价,即装运港船上交货。按FOB进行的交易,买方负责派船接运货物,卖家应在合同规定的装运港和规定的期限内将货物装上买方指定的船只,并及时通知买方。货物在装运港被装上指定船时,风险即由卖方转移至买方
FOB (Free on Board) is also known as FOB, i.e. FOB on board at the port of shipment. In FOB transactions, the buyer is responsible for dispatching ships to pick up the goods. The seller shall ship the goods to the vessel designated by the buyer at the port of shipment and within the specified time limit stipulated in the contract, and notify the buyer in time. When the goods are loaded on the designated vessel at the port of shipment, the risk is transferred from the seller to the buyer.
那FOB条款下,发货人都要承担哪些费用?
Under FOB terms, what are the costs to be borne by the shipper?
常规应付费用
Conventional payable expenses
我们都知道FOB条件下,发货人一般只需负责起运港费用,即上船前的费用,包括:提货费、装箱费、港杂费、港安费、提单费、舱单录入费、码头操作费(THC)或原产地附加费(ORC)、铅封费、报关费等。
We all know that under FOB conditions, shippers generally only need to be responsible for the port of departure expenses, i.e. pre-shipment expenses, including: pick-up fees, packing fees, port incidental charges, port security charges, bill of lading fees, bill of lading entry fees, terminal operating fees (THC) or surcharge of origin (ORC), lead sealing fees, customs clearance fees, etc.
特别注意的是美国的AMS、欧盟的ENS等舱单申报费用,因为都是起运港装船前申报,那么这些费用也就属于“离岸”之前发生的费用,一般应由发货人承担。当然,客户答应承担这部分费用的除外。
Special attention should be paid to the declaration fees of AMS and ENS in the United States and EU, because they are all declarations before shipment at the port of departure, so these fees also belong to the expenses incurred before "offshore" and should generally be borne by the shipper. Of course, except that the customer promised to bear this part of the cost.
意外情况的费用
Expenses for contingencies
1、船货衔接不当产生的费用
1. Expenses incurred by improper connection of ship and cargo
FOB,船货衔接是关键。如果没有及时装柜入港上不了船,那产生的空舱费、滞期费等都将由发货人承担;反之备货装柜太早,超期箱使费、仓储费等也是要由发货人来承担的。所以FOB对于装运期和装运港要再三确认,保持密切沟通,保证船货衔接。
FOB, ship-cargo connection is the key. If there is no timely loading and unloading on board the vessel, the cargo holder will bear the empty charge and demurrage charges; conversely, the cargo holder will bear the overdue container handling charges and warehousing charges if the cargo is loaded too early. Therefore, FOB should confirm the time of shipment and the port of shipment again and again, maintain close communication and ensure the convergence of cargo and ship.
2、目的港无人提货产生的费用
2. Costs incurred by unattended delivery at destination port
因某种原因,货物运到目的港后收货人未提货也未付运费,此时承运人除无法及时收回运费外,还面临货物要被当地海关拍卖或者产生高额堆存费等情形。因此可能首先向收货人请求支付,无果后会转向发货人。 
For some reason, the consignee did not pick up the goods or pay the freight after the goods arrived at the destination port. At this time, the carrier could not recover the freight in time, but also faced with the situation that the goods would be auctioned by the local customs or generate high storage costs. Therefore, it is possible to request payment from the consignee first, and then turn to the consignor if it fails.  
海运费:原则上首先应由收货人承担,当无人提货,则可能会转回发货人承担;
Maritime Freight: In principle, the consignee should bear the cost first. When no one takes delivery of the goods, it may be transferred back to the consignor to bear the cost.
提货:首先通知收货人提货,无人提货,通知发货人处理,如回运或转卖等;
Delivery: First, notify the consignee to take delivery, no one takes delivery, notify the consignor to handle, such as return or resale, etc.
目的港滞箱费、滞港费:无人提货产生滞箱费及滞港费,货不抵费的情况下,可能会要求发货人承担。
Delay charges and delaying charges at destination port: Delaying charges and delaying charges may be required to be borne by the shipper if no one takes delivery of the goods.
3、高额指定的代理费用
3. Highly designated agency costs
指定货运代理往往给出的费用往往会高出普通货运代理好多。这是因为货代系收货人指定,也就是收货人跟货代订立的运输合同,而不是卖方。货代对收货人负责。
Designated freight forwarders often pay much more than ordinary freight forwarders. This is because the consignee appoints the consignee, that is, the contract of carriage between the consignee and the consignee, not the seller. The forwarder is responsible to the consignee.
发货人与货代之间并无直接合同关系,一般也就没有议价的可能。所以指定货代给出的起运港一系列费用就会相对高于普通货运代理。这部分的差额,如果不是很过分,为了货物顺利发出,发货人只有忍痛接受高费用标准。
There is no direct contractual relationship between the shipper and the forwarder, and there is generally no possibility of negotiation. Therefore, the designated freight forwarder will give a series of costs at the port of departure, which will be relatively higher than that of the ordinary freight forwarder. This part of the difference, if not very excessive, in order to smooth delivery of goods, shippers have to bear the pain of accepting high cost standards.
4、货损的赔偿
4. Compensation for damage to goods
当目的港开箱验货时,发现货损,FOB条件下一般情况由收货人来承担责任。 而且收货人一般买了保险,可以申请保险赔付。但如果没有办理的话,收货人可能还是会和发货人协商处理。
When the goods are checked out at the destination port, the consignee is generally responsible for the damage found under FOB conditions. And the consignee usually buys insurance and can apply for insurance compensation. But if not, the consignee may still negotiate with the consignor.
货损如果是因为发货人包装、检验柜子不仔细或其他上船前特殊情况等引起的,对货损是有一定责任的,需协商处理,承担相应赔偿。如果能证明不是自己方的责任,可以拿出装箱照片、装箱单或其他证明资料,让收货人向船方进行索赔。
If the damage is caused by the shipper's packing, careless inspection cabinet or other special circumstances before boarding the ship, the shipper is liable for the damage to some extent, which needs to be dealt with through consultation and should be compensated accordingly. If it can prove that it is not our responsibility, we can take out the packing photos, packing list or other supporting information and let the consignee claim from the ship.
5、无单放货的损失
5. Loss of delivery without bill of lading
FOB条款下,相比指定船公司,发货人更多的是指定货运代理。但由于指定货代通常与收货人保持着密切的业务关系,因此指定货代极有可能在未收回正本提单的情况下将货物直接放给收货人,即无单放货,导致发货人虽持有提单,但实际上已经货款两空,最终造成重大损失。
Under FOB terms, shippers are more designated freight forwarders than designated shipping companies. However, due to the close business relationship between the designated forwarder and the consignee, it is very likely that the designated forwarder will deliver the goods directly to the consignee without recovering the original bill of lading, i.e. delivery without bill of lading, which results in the fact that the consignor has emptied the bill of lading, resulting in heavy losses.
6、信用证的“软坑”
6. The "Soft Pit" of Letter of Credit
信用证软条款是开证申请人在信用证中设置的条款,这样的条款会导致受益人安全收汇受到威胁,而给申请人带来交易主动权或骗取货物及预付款项的利益,具有隐蔽性。
The soft clause of L/C is the clause set by the applicant in the L/C. Such clause will threaten the beneficiary's safe collection of foreign exchange, and bring the applicant the benefit of trading initiative or fraud of goods and advance payment, which is concealed.
如果发货人不注意,递交的单据与信用证不一致时,会被拒绝付款,而发货后发货人就会陷入被动的地位,进退两难,货款受损。
If the shipper fails to pay attention to the fact that the documents submitted are inconsistent with the letter of credit, payment will be refused, and the shipper will fall into a passive position after shipment, in a dilemma of advance and retreat, and the payment will be damaged.
总结
summary
我们海运发货一定要有风险控制意识。
We must have a sense of risk control in shipping.
能争取采取CIF或者CFR的情况下,尽量不要采用FOB贸易术语
If you can strive for CIF or CFR, try not to use FOB trade terms.
争取采用船公司提单取代货代提单。
We will strive to replace the freight forwarding bill of lading with the shipping company bill of lading.
接受指定货代时,必须仔细审核该货代的资质
When accepting a designated forwarder, the qualification of the forwarder must be carefully examined.
必须注意控制货物的所有权,
Attention must be paid to controlling the ownership of the goods.
提单的签发要非常慎重。不能接受对方作为提单的托运人的要求,同时尽量不要接受记名提单,也不要做成凭收货人指示的提单),而应该做凭发货人指示的提单 。
Bill of lading should be issued with great care. It is not acceptable for the other party to be the shipper of the bill of lading. At the same time, we should try not to accept nominated bills of lading, nor to make bills of lading on the instructions of the consignee, but to make bills of lading on the instructions of the consignee.
投保陆运险来消除从发货人仓库到装运港之间的保险盲区。
Insurance of land transportation insurance to eliminate the insurance blind zone from shipper's warehouse to the port of shipment.
必须仔细审核合同及信用证,避免软条款,并在出立各项单据时严格遵照合同及信用证的要求。
The contract and letter of credit must be examined carefully to avoid soft clauses and strictly comply with the requirements of the contract and letter of credit when issuing documents.
投保相关出口信用险,以规避并转化风险。
To avoid and transform risks, relevant export credit insurance should be insured.